PAPER No. 3.-*
DOWN THE VALLEY AFTER "STONEWALL'S QUARTER-
I pass by the scenes of our winter quarters at Manassas,
and of the falling back from that line of defence; for although there are
many points of interest connected with these events, I can only in these
papers touch on
a few of the more important movements of our army.
Ewell's division held the line of the Rappahannock,
while Johnston fell back to Richmond, and went thence to the Peninsula
to support Magruder in the skillful
and gallant resistance he had been making to the advance
of the overwhelming force of the enemy. The situation at this time was
anything but encouraging. The Confederates after the battle of Manassas,
had been beguiled into the idea that the war was virtually over-that foreign
powers wold certainly recognize the Confederacy, and that it was scarcely
make much preparation for another campaign.
I remember meeting, the day after the brilliant affair,
near Leesburg (Ball's Bluff), an officer of high rank, who had just returned
from Richmond, and who said
to me: "We shall have no more fighting. It is not
our policy to advance on the enemy now; they will hardly advance on us,
and before spring England and France will recognize the Confederacy, and
that will end the war." The time of the enlistment of nearly the whole
of the Virginia army expired in the early spring of
1862, and nearly all of the infantry were planning to "jine
the cavalry," or to become artillerymen.
of new companies of cavalry and artillery were formed
(on paper), and if these plans had been carried out,
the whole army would have been converted into
cavalry and artillery. But the disasters
at Forts Henry and Donaldson brought us to our senses, the patriotism of
the men promptly responded, and most of them enlisted "for the war," while
the "conscript law,"
which was now passed, settled the matter with any
one who wavered.
The Thirteenth "Foot Cavalry" had tried in vain to
be transferred to Stuart's cavalry, and they now gracefully
accepted the situation, enlisted for the war, and entered upon the reorganization
by the election
of new officers. This fatal defect in the law by which
the men were allowed to choose their own officers
would have demoralized almost any other troops in
the world; but the splendid morale of our army, their
high intelligence, and their devotion to the cause, brought us safely through
this severest ordeal without serious damage. There were, of course, some
good officers who were thrown out, and some indifferent
ones elected; but on the whole the army was about
as well officered as before. In my own regiment the
Colonel (J. A. Walker-A. P. Hill had been recently promoted), stated in
my presence soon after the election, that if he had the appointment of
company officers, he would have appointed just the ones whom the men had
Stonewall Jackson had been sent to the command
of the "Valley District," in October, 1861, and had
displayed that wonderful activity which seasoned his men and prepared them
for what was to follow. His mind-winter march to Bath, Hancock and Romney;
his indignant resignation because he thought the Secretary
of War (Mr. Benjamin) had listened to complaints of his subordinates, and
undertaken to regulate the internal affairs and movements of his troops
without consulting him-and his brilliant fight
at Kemstown, which, though in one sense a defeat,
recalled to the valley the column which was marching on Gen. Johnston's
flank-are all of deep historic interest, but will be omitted from these
we had not yet joined the valley army.
It was, indeed, uncertain, whether Ewell would be
sent to join Jackson, or be ordered to Richmond,
and even after ordered to the valley there was a
doubt as to what point we would go, until finally
was decided by our falling back to Gordonsville, and
marching thence to Stanardsville, in Green county, where we had for a few
days a very delightful camp-ground. On the afternoon of the 30th of April,
Ewell entered Swift Run Gap, which Jackson had
just left, to fulfill his plan of uniting with Gen.
Ed. Johnson, then posted twenty miles west of Staunton,
to strike Fremont's advance under Milroy.
Ewell's division at this time, consisted of Gen. R.
Taylor's Louisiana brigade, Gen. Trimble's brigade (consisting of the Twenty-first
North Carolina, the Twenty-first Georgia, the Sixteenth Mississippi and
the Fifteenth Alabama regiments), and Gen. Elzey's
brigade (composed of the Thirteenth Virginia, the
Tenth Virginia and the First Maryland regiments),
and the batteries of artillery which were then attached
to each brigade. We had also two regiments of cavalry making our whole
force about 7,000 men well equipped, well disciplined, and of splendid
morale. I had opportunity at this time and subsequently of seeing
a good deal of Gen. Ewell, and he impressed me as
being every inch a soldier. Plain in his dress, quick
(and if need be rough) in his orders, prompt in execution,
almost reckless in his courage, and stubborn and unyielding in holding
any position assigned him,
he was just the man whom Jackson needed, in whom
he seemed to have the highest confidence, and to
whom he was certainly indebted for much of his splendid
I remember being at his quarters one day at Swift
Run Gap, as he was sending out a scouting party.
The captain who commanded it had received his instructions
and was just mounting to ride off when Gen. Ewell called him back and said:
more captain, I wish you to particularly observe:
don't want you to send me any information received
from 'reliable citizens.' I only want what you see or positively ascertain
yourself." He seemed to appreciate fully the character of the volunteers
his command, and the difference between them and
the old United States regulars whom he had commanded
so long. He remarked to me one day: "There are a great
many of these officers who will be held to account after the war is over
by the rank and file of the army. Many of these men are our superiors
in point of intelligence, wealth and social position,
and if an officer fails to appreciate the difference between these men
and the rough elements found in the old service, he will rue it when the
war is over."
The brigadiers of our division were all men of mark.
Gen. Richard Taylor (son of "Old Rough and Ready") was a gentleman of rare
accomplishments and a soldier of such decided ability, that he was destined
to rise to the rank of lieutenant general, and give to Stonewall's Quarter-master"
(Gen. Banks) on his Read River expedition the additional sobriquet of "Dick
Gen. Trimble rose to the rank of Major-General, lost
a leg at Gettysburg and gave most untiring service
to the cause he came from Maryland to expouse.
Gen. Elzey was also a Marylander who had won a
fine reputation in the old army, who had been called
by Beauregard at First Manassas, "the Blucher of the
day," who became also a Major-General, and who was recognized as an accomplished
and gallant soldier.
Besides there were then serving in the division, J.
A. Walker, J. E. B. Terrill, Geo. H. Steuart, B. T. Johnson, Hays, York,
J. M. Jones, Posey, Canty and others,
who afterwards won the wreath and stars.
While watching Banks, and awaiting Jackson's movements,
we luxuriated in the green fields, the beautiful groves the clear streams,
the magnificent scenery, and (what was, perhaps, even more appreciated),
the delicious mild and elegant apple-butter of the glorious valley.
But we had not long to wait. General Banks retreated
down the valley, and took a strong position at Strausburg, while Jackson
raised the drooping hopes
of the Confederacy by the following characteristic
"VALLEY DISTRICT, May 9, 1862.
To General S. Cooper:
God blessed our arms with victory at McDowell yesterday.
T. J. JACKSON, Major-General.
After defeating Milroy-Fremont's advance guard-and
pursuing him until he was driven out of the range of proposed operations
in the valley, he ordered Ewell
to move down the Luray valley, while he marched across
by Harrisonburg down the main pike to Newmarket, and then over Massanuttin
to join Ewell in his advance.
I shall never forget the enthusiasm with which we started
on that march. The "Luray Valley" lies
between the Blue Ridge and the Massanuttin (a
high and precipitous mountain which suddenly rises
from the valley opposite Swift Run Gap, and as suddenly terminates near
Strausburg, fifty miles
below), and is one of the loveliest spots that the
sun shines upon. As we moved down this beautiful valley, by the pretty
little town of Luray, past many pleasant homes and well-stocked farms,
the people received us everywhere with the liveliest demonstrations of
and supplied us abundantly with food of every description.
Ewell continued to lead the advance,
which was directed on Front Royal, in order to flank
Banks's position at Strausburg. The ubiquitous Ashby had pressed his cavalry
close up to Strausburg, and
had stretched across the main valley a cordon of pickets,
which completely concealed our movements
as we pressed on rapidly towards our objective point.
I well remember when Jackson first came to the front
of our column. Hearing loud cheering in the rear,
which came nearer and nearer, we soon saw that it was Stonewall himself,
mounted on that old sorrel which
we afterwards came to know so well, and galloping
along the column with uncovered head. We, too, at once took up the shout,
and gave a hearty greeting
to the great captain, who had come to lead us to victory,
and the mountains echoed and re-echoed
with the glad acclaim.
About two o'clock P. M. on Friday, May 23d, our advance
(consisting of the First Maryland and Wheat's Louisiana "Tigers," all under
the command of General George H. Steuart) made a dash at the Federal force
stationed in Front Royal, which seemed to be taken completely by surprise,
but which made a gallant resistance as it was pressed rapidly back over
the two forks of the Shenandoah river.
Jackson was always in the forefront-sometimes even
in advance of the skirmish line-and manifested the
greatest impatience to press forward; at one time directing an aid to "order
up every rifled gun and
every brigade in the army."
The stubborn fight between the two "First Maryland"
regiments (the Confederates under Col. Bradley T. Johnson and the Federals
under Col. Kenly); the cavalry charge at Cedarville, five miles from Front
Royal, in which Col. Flournoy (under the order of Jackson and in his immediate
presence), charged with 250 men four times his numbers, and so completely
broke and scattered them, that other Confederate
forces coming up, about 700 prisoners, two rifled
guns, and large quantities of arms, ammunition and
stores were captured; the gallant fight of Col. Ashby,
at Bucktown, and the complete turning of the position
of the enemy at Strausburg, were all results of these rapid movements which
I have not space to describe
We bivouacked that night just beyond the forks of
the Shanandoah, while some of the pickets of our division
were advanced to within four miles of Winchester.
Taken from the Southern Historical
Volume IX, Richmond, Va, April,
1881, pages 185-189
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